Rutgers University
Department of History—Graduate Program
16:510:521 Colloquium in Labor History
Latin American Workers, South and North

Version 4.4

Aldo Lauria Santiago
A268---Lucy Stone Hall—Livingston Campus

This colloquium will examine the history of workers, both urban and rural, in Latin America since the late nineteenth century.  We will also follow Latin American “labor” migration or incorporation to the United States and study the work and political lives of Latin American communities and their role in larger working class movements.  Among the themes we’ll consider are: work and the economics of class formation; work place experience; labor organizing, protest, and revolt; the role of class in rural and urban protest, the intersection of multi-class populist politics with working class goals and movements;  the racialization of Latinos in the US and Latino presence in US labor and leftist movements.  Some of the North/South themes will be in a comparative frame, and some of them linked via experiences of migration and the reconstruction of individual stories.  We will study the history of Mexican miners and farmworkers in Mexico, and in Texas, Arizona and California.  We’ll consider the experience of garment and textile workers in Chile, Colombia and New York City.   Cuban and Puerto Rican tobacco workers in the Caribbean and in Florida and New York.  The laboring of Mexicans in railroad work in Mexico and the US Midwest.  Rural worker radicalization in Central America, Cuba and Peru... Labor history, broadly defined, has produced some of the most interesting and compelling monographs in the study of Latin America and US Latino history. 

The primary foci of our comparative/linked mode will be racialization, radicalization, and citizenship, while in non-comparative mode the diversity of work/production/wage arrangements will be emphasized.

Requirements (tentative):

  • Presence and Participation
  • 4-5 presentations of half of weekly readings
  • One research report on Spanish Language material on labor and migration, using Spanish language databases
  • One report using NYT, Google Books and other full text digital sources to plot contours of linked labor histories (IWW in Mexico and California, AFL-CIO in Fla and PR, copper industry on both sides of the border, etc.) OR using the Robert Alexander collection at Rutgers on one union, industry or movement in Latin America.
  • One historiographical/think-piece paper on Latin America and/or Latino labor/class history

Weekly Themes and Readings

  • Week 1: Places of origin: Late colonial and early republican peasant communities, artisans and haciendas

Lauria-Santiago, Aldo. “Land, Production and Trade in the Nineteenth Century.” in A Companion to Latin American History, Thomas Holloway ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.

Lauria-Santiago, Aldo. “Land, Community, and Revolt in Indian Izalco, El Salvador, 1855–1905.” Hispanic American Historical Review 79, o. 3 (September 1998): 495–534.

Lauria-Santiago, Aldo. “Holding the City Hostage…” The Americas.

Sowell, David. “The 1893 Bogotazo…” Journal of Latin American Studies, 21:2 (May 1989): 267-282.

Wolf. “The Vicissitudes of the Closed Corporate…”

Wolf. “Closed Corporate Communities”

John Tutino, "The Revolution in Mexican Independence: Insurgency and the Renegotiation of Property, Production, and Patriarchy in the Bajío, 1800-1855," Hispanic American Historical Review, 78: 3 (August 1998), pp. 367-418.

  • Week 2: Agrarian Wage Work and Tenancy

Peloso, Vincent C. 1999. Peasants on plantations: Subaltern strategies of labor and resistance in the Pisco valley, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Gould, Jeffrey L. and Aldo Lauria-Santiago. 2008. To rise in darkness : Revolution, repression, and memory in El Salvador, 1920-1932. Durham: Duke University Press. Chaps 1-2.

Kathleen Lopez. Book MS. Chap. 2


Mallon, Florencia. The Defense of Community in Peru's Central Highlands: Peasant Struggles and Capitalist Transition, 1860-1940, Part II (The Peasants Confront Industry)

  • Week 3: Mining Enclaves [Feb 2: David]

Klubock, Thomas. 1998. Contested Communities: Class, Gender, and Politics in Chile's El Teniente Copper Mine, 1904-1951. Durham: Duke University Press.

Smale, Robert L. 2010. "I sweat the flavor of tin": Labor activism in early twentieth-century Bolivia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Tinsma, Heidi. "Good Wives and Unfaithful Men: Gender Negotiations and Sexual Conflicts in the Chilean Agrarian Reform, 1964–1973," HAHR, 81:3-4 (2001)

  • Week 4: Workers and Work [Feb 9: Jazmin]

Farnsworth-Alvear, Ann. 2000. Dulcinea in the Factory: Myths, Morals, Men, and Women in Colombia's Industrial Experiment, 1905-1960. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Cohen, Deborah. Braceros: Migrant Citizens and Transnational Subjects in the Postwar United States and Mexico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Nash, Manning. 1967. Machine age Maya; the industrialization of a Guatemalan community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chap. 3.

Grandin, Greg. "The Strange case of La Mancha Negra: Maya-State relations in nineteenth-century Guatemala." HAHR. 77:2 (May 1997): 211-243.

  • Week 5: Workers and Populism [Feb 16: Lance]

French, John. 1992. The Brazilian Workers' ABC: Class Conflict and Alliances in Modern Sao Paulo. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.


James, Daniel. Resistance and Integration: Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 1946-1976. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Snodgrass, Michael. 2003. Deference and defiance in Monterrey: Workers, paternalism, and revolution in Mexico, 1890-1950. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bergquist, Charles W. Labor in Latin America: Comparative Essays on Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, and Colombia. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1986. Pick one Chapter.

  • Week 6: Workers and the Left [Feb 23: Jazmin]

Winn, Peter. 1986. Weavers of Revolution: The Yarur Workers and Chile's Road to Socialism. New York: Oxford U. Press.

Levenson-Estrada, Deborah. 1994. Trade Unionists against Terror: Guatemala City, 1954-1985. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Gould, Jeffrey L. and Aldo Lauria-Santiago. 2008. To rise in darkness: Revolution, repression, and memory in El Salvador, 1920-1932. Durham: Duke University Press. Chaps. 3-5.

Carr, Barry. "The Mexican Communist Party and Agrarian Mobilization in La Laguna." Hispanic American Historical Review.

  • Week 7: Workers and Revolution [Mar 1: unassigned]

Forster, Cindy. 2001. The time of freedom: Campesino workers in Guatemala’s October revolution. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Catherine A Nolan-Ferrell.  Constructing Citizenship: Transnational Workers and Revolution on the Mexico-Guatemala Border, 1880—1950. Chaps. 5-6.

Ruiz, Ramon Eduardo. 1982. The Great Rebellion: Mexico 1905-1924.  Chaps. XXX.

Knight, Alan S. 1984. The working class and the mexican revolution, circa 1900-1920. Journal of Latin American Studies 16, no. 1: 51-79.

Carr, Barry. "Mill Occupations and Soviets..."

Carr, Barry. "Identity, Class and Race: Black immigrant workers, Cuban Communism and the sugar insurgency".

  • Week 8: Workers and Revolt [Mar 8: David]

Brennan, James. 1994. The Labor Wars in Cordoba, 1955-1976: Ideology, Work, & Labor Politics in an Argentine Industrial City. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Press.

Gould, Jeffrey. 1990. To Lead as Equals: Rural Protest and Political Consciousness in Chinandega, Nicaragua, 1912-1979. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Lowell Gudmundson and Francisco Scarano, "Conclusion: Imagining the Future of the Subaltern Past - Fragments of Race, Class, and Gender in Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean, 1850-1950," Aviva Chomsky and Aldo Lauria-Santiago (eds.), Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State: The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean, Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1998, pp. 335-64.

  • Week 9: Mexico’s Former Northwest in the 19th Century [Mar 22: Matt]

Calderón, Roberto R. 2000. Mexican coal mining labor in Texas and Coahuila, 1880-1930. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Benton-Cohen, Katherine. 2009. Borderline Americans: Racial division and labor war in the Arizona borderlands. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

  • Week 10: Colonial/Neo-colonial Labor migration to the US [Mar 29: unassinged]

González, Gilbert. 1994. Labor and Community: Mexican Citrus Worker Villages in a Southern California County, 1900-1950. Urbana: The University of Illinois Press.

Ruíz, Vicki. 1987. Cannery women, cannery lives: Mexican women, unionization, and the California food processing industry, 1930-1950. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Valdés, Dennis Nodín. 2011. Organized agriculture and the labor movement before the UFW: Puerto Rico, Hawai’i, California. Austin: University of Texas Press.

  • Week 11: Transnational contexts: Mexican Industrial Workers [Apr 5: Matt]

Zarazoga Vargas. Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933, University of California Press, 1999.

Zarazoga Vargas. Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in Twentieth Century America, Princeton University Press, 2007.

  • Week 12: Transnational contexts:  Puerto Rican, Colombian Workers [Apr 12: unnasigned]

Whalen, Carmen Teresa. From Puerto Rico to Philadelphia: Puerto Rican Workers and Postwar Economies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.

Fink, Leon, and Alvis E. Dunn. The Maya of Morganton: Work and Community in the Nuevo New South. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Articles TBA

  • Week 13: Transnational contexts: Nuevos Latinos in the Nuevo South [Apr 19: Simone]

***Visit by Avi Chomsky: 4pm Forum--we might cancel class and move this week's readings to final week***

Chomsky, Aviva.  Linked Labor Histories: New England, Colombia, and the Making of a Global Working Class. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2008.

  • Week 14: Discussion of Research Projects


Extended Bibliography:

Priority Items:

Pavilack, Jody. Mining for the Nation:  The Politics of Chile's Coal Communities from the Popular Front to the Cold War.  State College: Penn State University Press, 2011.

Rogers, Thomas D. The Deepest Wounds: The Laboring Landscapes of Sugar in Northeast Brazil.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Paulo. The Allure of Labor : Workers, Race, and the Making of the Peruvian State.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

Martínez, Samuel. 1995. Peripheral migrants: Haitians and dominican republic sugar plantations. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Freeman, Carla. 2000. High tech and high heels in the global economy: Women, work, and pink-collar identities in the caribbean. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Driscoll de Alvarado, Barbara. 1999. The tracks north : The railroad bracero program of world war II. Austin, Tex.: CMAS Books, Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas at Austin.

Bortz, Jeff. 2008. Revolution within the revolution: Cotton textile workers and the Mexican labor regime, 1910-1923. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Casanovas, Joan.  Title Bread or bullets!: Urban labor and Spanish colonialism in Cuba, 1850-1898. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998.

Norris, Jim. 2009. North for the Harvest: Mexican Workers, Growers, and the Sugar Beet Industry. St. Paul, Minn.: Minnesota Historical Society Press.

Daniel, Cletus E. Chicano Workers and the Politics of Fairness: The FEPC in the Southwest,1941-1945. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991.

Aviva Chomsky and Aldo Lauria-Santiago, eds. Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State: The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean. Duke University Press

Fink, Leon. 2011. Workers across the Americas: The transnational turn in labor history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Foley, Neil. The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture American Crossroads. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Mize, Ronald L. and Alicia C. S. Swords. 2010. Consuming Mexican labor: From the bracero program to nafta. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Reisler, Mark. 1976. By the sweat of their brow: Mexican immigrant labor in the united states, 1900-1940. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, Press.

Weber, Devra. Dark Sweat, White Gold: California Farm Workers, Cotton, and the New Deal. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Collier, Ruth Berins, and David Collier. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002.

Post, Ken. 1978. Arise ye starvelings: The jamaican labour rebellion of 1938 and its aftermath. The Hague; Boston: Nijhoff.

Gonzalez, Gilbert G. 1999. Mexican consuls and labor organizing: Imperial politics in the American Southwest. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Eric Wolf and Sidney Mintz. "Haciendas and Plantations in Middle America and the Antilles." Social and Economic Studies. 6:3: 386-412.

A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970. By Matt Garcia. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Pinto Vallejos, Julio. 1998. Trabajos y rebeldías en la pampa salitrera: El ciclo del salitre y la reconfiguración de las identidades populares (1850-1900). Colección ciencias sociales historia. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universidad de Santiago.

Wolfe, Joel. 1993. Working women, working men: São paulo and the rise of brazil's industrial working class, 1900-1955. Durham: Duke University Press.

Salazar Vergara, Gabriel. 1985. Labradores, peones y proletarios: Formación y crisis de la sociedad popular chilena del siglo xix. Colección estudios históricos. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Sur.

Gonzalez, Gilbert G. 2006. Guest workers or colonized labor?: Mexican labor migration to the united states. Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm Publishers.

Catherine A Nolan-Ferrell.  Constructing Citizenship: Transnational Workers and Revolution on the Mexico-Guatemala Border, 1880—1950.

Articles in English and Spanish:

Adelman, Jeremy. 1993. State and labour in argentina: The portworkers of buenos aires, 1910-1921. Journal of Latin American Studies 25, no. 1: 73-102.

Ankum-Houwink, J. 1974. Chinese contract migrants in Surinam between 1853 and 1870. Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, no. 17: 42-68.

Armbruster-Sandoval, Ralph. 1999. Globalization and cross-border labor organizing: The guatemalan maquiladora industry and the phillips van heusen workers' movement. Latin American Perspectives 26, no. 2: 108-128.

Barrán, José Pedro and Benjamín Nahum. 1979. Proletariado ganadero, caudillismo y guerras civiles en el Uruguay del novecientos. Nova Americana, no. 2: 169-194.

Camayd Freixas, Erik. 2009. Interpreting after the largest ice raid in us history: A personal account. Latino Studies 7, no. 1: 123-139.

Cárdenas García, Nicolás. 2008. Agricultura comercial, industria y estructura ocupacional en Sonora, 1900-1960. Región y Sociedad 20, no. 41: 175-197.

Chartrain, François. 1973. El mundo del trabajo en paraguay entre 1870 y 1936: Reflexiones sobre el estudio histórico (translated by rubén bareiro saguier). Revista Paraguaya de Sociología 10, no. 27: 93-100.

Chassen de López, Francie Robin. 1974. El movimiento obrero y la revolución mexicana. Latino América (Mexico), no. 7: 181-206.

Chirico, María Magdalena. 1987. El relato de vida como instrumento de investigación: Ramón, un trabajador del partido de la matanza. Desarrollo Económico (Argentina) 27, no. 107: 423-444.

Craton, Michael J. 1994. Reshuffling the pack: The transition from slavery to other forms of labor in the british caribbean, ca. 1790-1890. New West Indian Guide 68, no. 1-2: 23-75.

Drinot de Echave, Paulo. 2004. The 1934 southern railway strike in peru. Bulletin of Latin American Research 23, no. 1: 1-29.

Duncan, Robert H. n.d. Incorporating the countryside: "Indigenismo," land, and labor during mexico's second empire, 1864-67. PCCLAS Proceedings 17: 69-86.

Flórez Gallego, Lenín. 1992. Historias nacionales, historias de los trabajadores y el problema de la democracia en la obra de charles bergquist. Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura, no. 20: 73-88.

Gómez-Quiñones, Juan and David R. Maciel. 1983. <i>la clase obrera en la historia de méxico, vol. 16: Al norte del río bravo (pasado lejano), 1600--1930.</i> series coordinated by pablo gonzález casanova.

Herrera Lima, Fernando Francisco. 2006. Trabajadores mexicanos en nueva york: Problemas y avances en su organización. Nueva Antropología 20, no. 66: 33-60.

Lacerte, Robert K. 1978. The evolution of land and labor in the haitian revolution, 1791--1820. Americas, The 34, no. 4: 449-459.

Long, Stewart. 1987. Undocumented immigrants in the los angeles garment industry: Displacement or dual labor market? Journal of Borderlands Studies 2, no. 2: 1-11.

Martínez, Samuel. 1997. The masking of history: Popular images of the nation on a dominican sugar plantation. New West Indian Guide 71, no. 3-4: 227-248.

Meyer, Jean A. 1971. Los obreros en la revolución mexicana: Los "batallones rojos". Historia Mexicana 21, no. 1: 1-37.

Milanich, Nara B. 2005. From domestic servant to working-class housewife: Women, labor, and family in chile. Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe 16, no. 1: 11-39.

Monteón, Michael Patrick. 1979. The <i>enganche</i> in the chilean nitrate sector, 1880--1930. Latin American Perspectives 6, no. 3: 66-79.

Moreira, José Aparecido Gomes. 1987. Para una historia de la juventud obrera católica, 1959--1985. Revista Mexicana de Sociología 49, no. 3: 205-220.

Mörner, Magnus. 1970. A comparative study of tenant labor in parts of europe, africa, and latin america, 1700--1900:  A preliminary report of a research project in social history. Latin American Research Review 5, no. 2: 3-15.

Orellana Retamales, Luis. 2004. La lucha de los mineros contra las leyes: Chuquicamata, 1900-1915. Historia (Chile) 37, no. 1: 169-206.

Pineo, Ronn F. 1988. Reinterpreting labor militancy: The collapse of the cacao economy and the general strike of 1922 in guayaquil, ecuador. Hispanic American Historical Review 68, no. 4: 707-736.

Pinto Vallejos, Julio. 1994. En el camino de la mancomunal: Organizaciones obreras en la provincia de tarapacá, 1880-1895. Cuadernos de Historia (Chile), no. 14: 81-135.

Porrini Beracochea, Rodolfo. 2003. Clase obrera, sindicatos y estado en el uruguay de la expansión industrial, 1936-1947: Algunas conclusiones y nuevos problemas para su investigación. Estudos Ibero-Americanos 29, no. 2: 171-196.

Reddock, Rhoda E. 2008. Indian women and indentureship in Trinidad and Tobago, 1845-1917: Freedom denied (reprinted from Caribbean quarterly, vol. 32, nos, 3-4, 1986). Caribbean Quarterly 54, no. 4: 41-68.

Robles Ortiz, Claudio. 2009. Agrarian capitalism and rural labour: The hacienda system in central chile, 1870-1920. Journal of Latin American Studies 41, no. 3: 493-526.

Samaroo, Brinsley. 1972. The trinidad workingmen's association and the origins of popular  protest in a crown colony. Social and Economic Studies 21, no. 2: 205-222.

Sanabria, Carlos. 2005. Samuel gompers and the american federation of labor in puerto rico. CENTRO Journal 17, no. 1: 140-161.

Senén González, Santiago. 1997. Repartan los sobrantes: El primer movimiento de protesta de los desocupados. Todo Es Historia 31, no. 361: 28-34.

Senén González, Santiago. 2002. La abanderada de los trabajadores: Eva perón y las organizaciones sindicales. Todo Es Historia 36, no. 419: 20-28.

Sesto, Carmen. 2003. La organización de la mano de obra en el refinamiento del vacuno en la provincia de buenos aires: Un sistema disciplinario, jerárquico y diferenciado, 1856-1900. Investigaciones y Ensayos, no. 53: 301-330.

Spalding, Hobart A., Jr. 1993. New directions and themes in latin american labor and working-class history: A sampler (review article). Latin American Research Review 28, no. 1: 202-214.

Svampa, Maristella and Sebastián Pereyra. 2005. La experiencia piquetera: Dimensiones y desafíos de las organizaciones de desocupados en argentina. Medio Ambiente y Urbanización 21, no. 61: 97-112.

Tompson, Doug. 2008. Refugiados libertos y esclavos asalariados: Entre esclavitud y libertad en la costa atlántica de honduras, ca. 1800. Mesoamérica (USA) 29, no. 50: 96-111.

Walker, David Wayne. 1981. Porfirian labor politics: Working class organizations in mexico city  and porfirio díaz, 1876--1902. Americas, The 37, no. 3: 257-289.

Zapata, Francisco and Ilán Bizberg Guter. 1984. "Worker consciousness and union orientation: The case of mexican steel workers," (translated by ian roxborough). Bulletin of Latin American Research 3, no. 1: 119-128.

Bustamante, Jorge A. 1981. "Historical conditions of early Mexican labor in the United States: Arizona - A neglected history." In Mexican immigrant workers in the U.S.

Kiser, George C. 1972. Mexican American Labor, Before World War II. JOURNAL OF MEXICAN AMERICAN HISTORY (2):122-142.

Laslett, John H. M. 1993. Gender, class, or ethno-cultural struggle?: the problematic relationship between Rose Pesotta and the Los Angeles ILGWU. CALIFORNIA HISTORY 72 (1):20-39.

Mulligan, Raymond A. 1973. New York foundlings at Clifton-Morenci: social justice in Arizona territory, 1904-1905. In Chicano : the evolution of a people.

Rose, Margaret. 1990. From the fields to the picket line: Huelga women and the boycott, 1965-1975. LABOR HISTORY 31 (3):271-293.

Sutton, Susan Buck, and Tracy Brunner. 1983. Life on the road: Midwestern migrant farmworker survival skills. MIGRATION TODAY 11 (1):24-31.

Trumpbour, John, Elaine Bernard, and Marcelo M. and Paez Mariela eds Suarez-Orozco. 2002. Unions and Latinos: mutual transformation. In LATINOS: REMAKING AMERICA.

Vargas, Zaragosa. 1991. Armies in the fields and factories: the Mexican working classes in the Midwest in the 1920s. MEXICAN STUDIES/ESTUDIOS MEXICANOS 7 (1):47-71.

Vargas, Zaragosa. 1994. Obreros y sindicatos chicanos: varieties of Chicano working-class history. INTERNATIONAL LABOR AND WORKING CLASS HISTORY (45):108-119.

French, John D. and Daniel James. 1997. The gendered worlds of Latin American women workers: From household and factory to the union hall and ballot box. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.


Sábato, Hilda and Luis Alberto Romero. 1992. Los trabajadores de buenos aires: La experiencia del mercado, 1850-1880. Colección historia y cultura. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana.

Eric Arnesen. “Whiteness and the Historians’ Imagination.” International Labor and Working-Class History 60:1 (Fall 2001): 3-32.

Trujillo Bolio, Mario A. 1997. Operarios fabriles en el valle de méxico (1864-1884): Espacio, trabajo, protesta y cultura obrera. México: Colegio de México: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social.

Bayer, Osvaldo and Osvaldo Bayer. 1992. La patagonia rebelde. Espejo de la argentina. Buenos Aires: Planeta.

Verene Shepherd. Maharani’s Misery: Narratives of a Passage from India to the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2002.

Evelyn Hu De-Hart, “Chinese Coolie Labour in Cuba in the Nineteenth Century: Free Labour or Neo-slavery?” In The Wages of Slavery, pp. 68-86.

Walton Look Lai. Indentured Labor, Caribbean Sugar: Chinese and Indian Migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Richard Steven Street. Beasts of the Field: a Narrative of California Farm Workers, 1769-1913. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004

Joseph Bedford. “Samuel Gompers and the Caribbean: The AFL, Cuba, and Puerto Rico 1898-1906.” Labor’s Heritage 6:4 (1995): 4-25.

Lillian Guerra. “Perceiving Populism: United States Imperialism and the Paradox of Labour Struggle in Cuba, 1906-1909.” Journal of Caribbean History (Barbados) 37:1 (2003): 45-69.

Gabriel Villaronga. Toward a Discourse of Consent: Mass Mobilization and Colonial Politics in Puerto Rico, 1932-1948. Westport, CN: Praeger, 2004.

Linda Gordon. The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Linda C. Majka, and Theo J. Majka. “The State as Labor Contractor: The Bracero Era.” In: Linda C. and Theo J. Majka,Farm Workers, Agribusiness, and the State, pp. 136-166 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982).

Joon K. Kim. “The Political Economy of the Mexican Farm Labor Program, 1942-64.” Aztlán 29:2 (Fall 2004): 13-53.

Cindy Hahamovitch. “Creating the Perfect Immigrants: Guestworkers of the World in Historical Perspective.” Labor History (Great Britain) 44:1 (2003): 69-94.

Tamar Diana Wilson. “Wage-Labor Migration and Class in Jalisco and the United States.” Latin American Perspectives 31:5 (September 2004): 100-117.

Michael Burawoy, “The Functions and Reproduction of Migrant Labor: Comparative Material from Southern Africa and the United States.” American Journal of Sociology 81 (1978): 1050-1086.

Claudio Lomnitz, “Bordering on Anthropology: Dialectics of a National Tradition,” in Lomnitz, Deep Mexico, Silent Mexico: An Anthropology of Nationalism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), pp. 228-62.

Alberto M. Camarillo, "The Development of the Chicano Working Class in Santa Barbara, California 1860-1897." In Perspectivas En Chicano Studies: Papers Presented at the Third Annual Meeting of the National Association of Chicano Social Science. 41-68.

Richard A. Garcia. Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929-1941.

George J. Sanchez. Becoming Mexican American.  UC Press.

Guerin-Gonzales. Mexican Workers and the American Dreams

Ruben F. Arturo Rosales, Pobre Raza: Violence, Justice, and Mobilization among México Lindo Immigrants, 1900-1936 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999), 75-98.

Alamillo, José M. 2006. Making lemonade out of lemons: Mexican American labor and leisure in a California town, 1880-1960. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Phillips, George Harwood. 2010. Vineyards & vaqueros: Indian labor and the economic expansion of los angeles, 1771-1877. Before gold: California under spain and mexico. Norman, Okla.: Arthur H. Clark Co.

Beautiful Flowers of the Maquiladora: Life Histories of Women Workers in Tijuana (Institute of Latin American Studies) by Norma Iglesias Prieto, Michael Stone, Henry Selby and Gabrielle Winkler (1997)

Hoerder, Dirk and Nora Helen Faires. 2011. Migrants and migration in modern north america: Cross-border lives, labor markets, and politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Caulfield, Norman. 1998. Mexican workers and the state: From the porfiriato to nafta. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press.

Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. 1994. Mexican american labor, 1790-1990. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Linda B Hall . Alvaro Obregón and Mexican migrant labor to the United States, 1920-1924.

Hall, Linda B. and Don M. Coerver. 1988. Revolution on the border: The united states and mexico, 1910-1920. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Abraham Hoffman, Unwanted Mexican Americans in the Great Depression: Repatriation Pressures, 1929-1939 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974).

Camille Guerin-Gonzales. 1994. Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration, Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939. New Brunswick: NJ: Rutgers University Press

Castillo, Pedro G. Mexico en Los Angeles: una historia social y cultural, 1781-1985. Los Noventa.

Dennis Nodin Valdés, "Betabeleros: The formation of an Agricultural Proletariat in the Midwest, 1897-1930," Labor History

Francisco Arturo Rosales and Daniel T. Simon. "Mexican Immigrant Experience in the Urban Midwest: East Chicago, Indiana, 1919-1945.” In Forging a Community: The Latino Experience in Northwest Indiana, 1919-1975.

Gabriela F. Arredondo. Mexican Chicago: Race, Identity, and Nation, 1916-39 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008),

Francisco Balderrama and Raymond Rodriguez. Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s.

Abraham Hoffman, Unwanted Mexican Americans in the Great Depression: Repatriation Pressures, 1929-1939 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974).

Camille Guerin-Gonzales. “Conversing across boundaries of race, ethnicity, class, gender, and region: Latino and Latina labor history.” Labor History, 35:4, (1994): 547-563.

Juan Ramon Garcia. Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954.

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Lobato, Mirta Zaida. 2001. La vida en las fábricas: Trabajo, protesta y política en una comunidad obrera, berisso (1904-1970). Colección entrepasados libros. Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros.

Auyero, Javier. 2001. Poor people's politics: Peronist survival networks and the legacy of evita. Durham: Duke University Press.

Petras, Elizabeth McLean. 1988. Jamaican labor migration: White capital and black labor, 1850-1930. Boulder: Westview Press.

 Holt, Thomas C. 1992. The problem of freedom: Race, labor, and politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Mize, Ronald L. (2006). “Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor

Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964.” Rural Sociology. 71(1): 85-107.

Mize, Ronald. (2005). “Reparations for Mexican Braceros? Lessons Learned from Japanese and

African American Attempts at Redress.” Cleveland State Law Review, LatCrit VIII Symposium Issue, 52 (1/2): 273-295.

Mize, Ronald L. " Putting the „I‟ in CF&I: On the Edge of Aztlán, Uniones de los Mineros, and

Chicano/Hispano Lived Experiences,” in The Ludlow Massacre and Beyond: The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company and Its Legacy. Fawn Amber Montoya and Jonathan Rees eds.

Henderson, Timothy J. 2011. Beyond borders : A concise history of mexican migration to the united states. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.


Online resources

Visit this site for information on migrant workers of the depression era. Search under El Rio and Mexican to see images of and hear interviews with Mexican migrant workers.

The official website. Contains images and video clips.

This site offers a sympathetic look at farmworkers. Includes a section on Braceros. The site is available in English and Spanish.

César Chávez and the Farmworkers' Struggle, a PBS Special for Labor Day. Includes biographical information, a timeline, and several nice images in these two sections.

Includes a chronology, quotes arranged by topic, a biography, and links to other web resources.

This brief biography and timeline includes images from the Library of Congress and is aimed at a young audience.

This famous tale of a real life strike by Mexican-American miners is now available for download online at the Prelinger Archives. You can find a guide to the movie with questions to think about and a brief clip at

This review of the documentary Chicano! Includes video clips and images from the Chicano movement, such as a reading of Corky Gonzales' I Am Joaquin.

Through food, music, and literature, students will examine stereotypes about Hispanic immigrants and learn about their diversity.

This curriculum covers the life and work of César E. Chávez and is provided for grades K through 12, with biographies, pictures, and other resources.

This site offers materials to accompany the documentary film, including a study guide. The teaching unit includes 5 lesson plans. Designed for California classrooms.

Unit concepts include the California grape farm workers’ struggle for basic human rights, the roles of Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta in the creation of United Farm Workers Union (UFW), the role of Theatro Campesino in the UFW movement, and local effects of the farm workers movement. This lesson could involve collaboration between reading and writing, history, and geography. The lesson is designed to utilize internet access. (Grades 8-10)

Focuses on three Hispanic groups: Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Cubans and emphasizes culture: food, music, and literature. This lesson could be adapted to Phoenix. (Grades 11)

As an introduction to the Chicano Power Movement, students read the poem written by 'Corky' Gonzalez, the famous Chicano poet and activist, and research the Chicano Movement, including its impact and importance. This lesson offers a great opportunity for collaboration between language arts and history.

This site offers a brief Teacher’s Guide for using CHICANO! by Arturo Rosales. Curricular themes include the influence of past ideals and experiences on the evolution of civil rights movements, the role of individuals and institutions in securing and protecting social and legal equality, and the significance of cultural identity and pride in inspiring political activism among people of a common heritage.

Search Cuba, mexico, etc in WPA database: