Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Graduate Program, Department of History

History 510:679

Colloquium: Advanced Topics in History: Latin America's Nineteenth Century

Aldo Lauria Santiago


Attempts to understand some of the most important aspects of contemporary Latin America begin with claims about of the nineteenth century.  Discussions of the region's land holding patterns, political structures, institutions and conflicts, the emergence of agrarian social classes, all refer back to this period.  In the study of the formation of the state and national ideologies, the nineteenth century appears as a fundamental period.  Similarly, studies of ethnic formation, mestizaje, and race relations all refer back to this period for important reference points.   Most important perhaps is the role of the nineteenth century in establishing the foundations for the regionalization of Latin American nation-states.  During the last twenty years nineteenth-century studies have boomed and as a result our understanding of the period has improved and grown more complex.  This boom has also produced some of the best studies in Latin American history.  This new literature has challenged many of the clichés and dated views that prevailed for long, some of them based on the positivist and liberal vs. conservatives paradigms produced during the period itself.  At the same time, this new literature has made it apparent how much work remains to be done.

This course will approach the nineteenth century as a long period—from the late eighteenth century to the early twentieth--that transformed the position, formation and experiences of elites, peasants, workers, slaves, artisans, while inserting the region more firmly, but still heterogeneously, into networks of colonial/neocolonial relations and global capitalism.  This approach gives us the opportunity to look at the nineteenth century as an analytical unit in which projects of domination and exploitation conceived in the late eighteenth century were broken, re-created, and broken again.  This longer period will facilitate the study of long term patterns as well those aspects of the period for which any sort of epochal, linear or developmentalist framing is useful.  This long term perspective raises critical methodological and theoretical questions about how to relate long-term change to the study of more specific themes whose chronology and logic does not correlate well with “epochal” narratives.


This course has three goals:

1. Help students prepare for qualifying exams and provide a coherent and heterogeneous basis for incorporating the nineteenth century into a teaching repertoire.

2. Provide students with a broad understanding of the literature that might form part of the framing of their own dissertations and research agendas.

3. Examine carefully the arguments, methods, sources, assemblage of recent monographs on the period.

Requirements and Evaluation:

Every week we will have assigned readings, usually a monograph, and open readings.

1.      You should be fully prepared with readings and written work, promptly and without excuses.

2.      You will have to find a chapter or article published in Spanish for five of our fourteen sessions and include it in your reading list for that week.  This should also allow you to become familiar with journals and research tools.

3.      You will have to write short weekly papers (2-4 pages) discussing (outline, asses, evaluate, contextualize) the readings in the context of a particular problem or question.  It is particularly important for you to analyze the conceptual foundations or implications of each reading and how these change over time.

4.      You will lead class discussion on at least three occasions. On those dates, the student in charge of the presentation will distribute an outline of discussion points or questions ahead of time to the class (previous evening).  Presentations should take about 20 minutes and place the readings in the context of the course’s goals and themes.

5.      Every student will select a theme or question and read how it is discussed in at least five major textbooks, writing a 5 page critical review essay on how the texts differ, compare with other readings in the course, and issues raised in the use of these materials in an undergraduate classroom.

6.      Every student will examine a recent dissertation (especially the first and last chapters and the footnotes/archival sources) and write a short review emphasizing either theoretical/conceptual/framing issues or the use of sources.

7.      Every student will select a theme or question from among those discussed in the course and (with secondary, web and reference sources) sketch out the existence and character of archival sources for researching the problem (US, abroad, microfilm, etc.).

8.      Research Skills workshops will be scheduled outside of class time. They are part of the coursework and attendance is expected.

You may choose one of two final projects for the course:

·     A traditional historiographic/research paper.  This may form part of a larger agenda or constitute a self-contained paper for conference or publication.

·     An exam-like essay that draws from the course readings but extends them significantly.  The exam question options will be discussed ahead of time with the instructor. You will answer one in an extensive and fully cited 20 page essay.

The evaluation of your work will be based on the following:

·     Class participation, short papers and presentations (40%)

·     Final Project (60%)


None of these books assigned below have been ordered.  Make sure you order them through or find them in a library.  Electronic versions of shorter required readings will be made available. 


Course Organization:

18 January                 Introduction and Review


25 January                    Classic Literature and Early Anthropological Contributions to the study of Peasants, Plantations, Communities, Caudillos, State Formation

Eric R. Wolf and Edward C. Hansen, "Caudillo Politics:  A Structural Analysis," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 9 (1966-67), pp. 168-179.

Eric Wolf. "Types of Latin American Peasantry." American Anthropologist 57:3 (Jun., 1955): 452-471.

Eric Wolf. "Aspects of Group Relations in a Complex Society." American Anthropologist 58: 1065-1078.

Eric Wolf. "Closed Corporate Communities in Mesoamerica and Central Java." Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 13: 1-18.

Eric Wolf and Sidney Mintz. "Haciendas and Plantations in Middle America and the Antilles." Social and Economic Studies. 6:3: 386-412.

Bradford Burns. "Cultures in Conflict" in Virginia Bernhard, ed. Elites, Masses, and Modernization in Latin America.

Charles A. Hale, "Political and Social Ideas," Leslie Bethell (ed.), Latin America: Economy and Society, 1870-1930, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989, pp. 225-72.

David Bushnell and Neill Macaulay. The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century.


Leslie Bethell, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Select chapters from Vols. III, IV and V.

E. Bradford Burns. The Poverty of Progress: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century. California UP. 1983

Eric R. Wolf. The Vicissitudes of the Closed Corporate Peasant Community. American Ethnologist, Vol. 13, No. 2. (May, 1986), pp. 325-329.


1 February                    Theoretical, Ideological  and Historiographic Debates on the Nineteenth Century

Steve Stern. "Feudalism, Capitalism, and the World-system in the Perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean." in Steve Stern Confronting Historical Paradigms:  Peasants, Labor and the Capitalist World System.

E. Bradford Burns. “Ideology in Nineteenth-Century Latin American Historiography.” The Hispanic American Historical Review. Vol. 58, No. 3 (Aug., 1978), pp. 409-431.

Roseberry, William. “Beyond the Agrarian Question in Latin America.” In Confronting Historical Paradigms: Peasants, Labor, and the World System in Africa and Latin America, Frederick Cooper and et. al. The University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.

Ernesto Laclau. "Feudalism or Capitalism in Latin America." in Political Ideology and Marxist Theory. 1977.

D. C. M. Platt.  “Dependency in Nineteenth-Century Latin America: An Historian Objects.” Latin American Research Review, Vol. 15, No. 1. (1980), pp. 113-130.

Stanley J. Stein; Barbara H. Stein.”D. C. M. Platt: The Anatomy of "Autonomy"” Latin American Research Review, Vol. 15, No. 1. (1980), pp. 131-146.

William Taylor. "Between Global Process and Local Knowledge:  An Inquiry into Early Latin American Social History, 1500-1900,"in Oliver Sunz ed. Reliving the Past:  The World and Social History

Florencia Mallon, "The Promise and Dilemma of Subaltern Studies: Perspectives from Latin American History," American Historical Review (Dec. 1994), pp. 1491-1515.

Lowell Gudmundson and Francisco Scarano, "Conclusion: Imagining the Future of the Subaltern Past - Fragments of Race, Class, and Gender in Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean, 1850-1950," Aviva Chomsky and Aldo Lauria-Santiago (eds.), Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State: The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean, Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1998, pp. 335-64.


Fernando H. Cardoso and Enzo Faletto. Dependency and Development in Latin America.

Stanley Stein, Barbara H. Stein. The Colonial Heritage of Latin America: Essays on Economic Dependence in Perspective.

Stein, Stanley J. & Stein, Barbara H. Silver Trade, and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe.


8 February                    Empire, State and Regional Societies at the end of Bourbon Era

Maxwell, Kenneth. "Hegemonies Old and New: The Ibero-Atlantic in the Long Eighteenth Century." In Colonial Legacies: The Problem of Persistence in Latin American History. ed. Jeremy Adelman, 69-90. Routledge, 1999.

Menegus Bornemann, Margarita. “Mercados y Tierras: El Impacto de las Reformas Borbónicas en las Comunidades Indígenas.” In Mercados Indígenas en México, Chile y Argentina, Siglos XVIII-XIX, eds. Jorge DedSilva Riquer and Antonio Escobar Ohmstede. CIESAS, 2000.

John Kicza. "The Social and Ethnic Historiography of Colonial Latin America:  The Last Twenty Years". William and Mary Quarterly 45 (July 1988): 453-488.

John Coatsworth. "The Limits of Colonial Absolutism: The State in Eighteenth-Century Mexico " in Karen Spalding ed. Essays in the Political, Economic, and Social History of Colonial Latin America.

Nancy Farris. Maya Society under Spanish Rule. Ch.12.

John Lynch. "The Institutional Framework of Colonial Spanish America, "  Journal of Latin American Studies 24 (Quincentenary Supplement 1992): 83-98.

Select one by Brading:

David Brading. "Government and Elite in Late Colonial Mexico." Hispanic American Historical Review 53 (August 1973): 389-414.

Brading, David Anthony. Nationalism and State-Building in Latin American History. Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, 20:1-2 (1994), 83-108

Or a chapter from his books on independence.


Karen Spalding. "Hacienda-village Relations in Andean Society." Latin American Perspectives 2: 107-121.

Nils Jacobsen and Hans Jurgen Puhle, eds. The Economies of Mexico and Peru during the Late Colonial Period, 1760-1810.

Susan Ramirez. Provincial Patriarchs:  Land Tenure and the Economics of Power in Colonial Peru.


15 February                  Regions and Insurgency in the Crisis of Empire, 1780-1825

Jaime Rodríguez, "Introduction," Rodríguez (ed.), The Independence of Mexico and the Origins of the New Nation. UCLA Latin American Center, 1989, pp. 1-15.

Andrews, George Reid. “Spanish American Independence: A Structural Analysis.” Latin American Perspectives, 12:1 (Winter 1985), 105-132.

Eric Van Young's “Agrarian Rebellion and Defense of Community:  Meaning and Collective Violence in Late Colonial and Independence-Era Mexico,” JSH, 27:2, 1993.

García Argañarás, Fernando. “Historical Structures, Social Forces, and Mexican Independence.” Latin American Perspectives, 13:1 (Winter 1986), 19-43.

Brian R. Hamnett, Process and Pattern: A Re-Examination of the Ibero-American Independence Movements, 1808-1826. Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2. (May, 1997), pp. 279-328.

Select one:

Eric Van Young. The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810-1821. Stanford UP, 2001.

Serulnikov, Sergio.  Subverting Colonial Authority: Challenges to Spanish rule in Eighteenth-century Southern Andes. Duke UP, 2003.

Hamnett, Brian R. Roots of Insurgency: Mexican Regions, 1750–1824. Cambridge UP, 1986.

Peter Guardino. The Time of Liberty: Popular Political Culture in Oaxaca, 1750-1850. Duke, 2005.

Sinclair Thomas. We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean Politics in the Age of Insurgency. U. of Wisconsin Press.

Ducey, Michael Thomas. A Nation of Villages Riot and Rebellion in the Mexican Huasteca, 1750–1850. University of Arizona Press, 2004.


John Lynch. The Spanish American Revolutions, 1808-1826.

Eric, Van Young, "Recent Anglophone Scholarship on Mexico and Central America in the Age of Revolution (1750-1850)" Hispanic American Historical Review 65:4 (Nov., 1985), 725-43.


22 February                  The Early Formation of States from Above and Below, 1810-1860s

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities. Selected chaps.

Leslie Bethell, ed. Mexico since Independence. Chap. 1.

François-Xavier Guerra, "The Spanish-American Tradition of Representation and its European Roots," JLAS, 26:1 (1994), pp. 1-35.

Mallon, Florencia E. “Peasants and State Formation in Nineteenth-Century Mexico:  Morelos, 1848–1858.” Political Power and Social Theory Volume 7 (1988): 1–54.

Ducey, Michael T. “Village, Nation, and Constitution: Insurgent Politics in Papantla, Veracruz, 1810–1821.” Hispanic American Historical Review 79, no. 3 (August 1999): 463–93.

Garavaglia, Juan Carlos. “La apoteósis del Leviathán: El estado en Buenos Aires en la primera mitad del siglo XIX.” Latin American Research Review 38, no. 1 (February 2003): 135–68.

Margaret Chowning. "The Countours of the Post-1810 Depression in Mexico: A Reappraisal from a Regional Perspective." American Historical Review 83 (1978): 8-100.

Peter Guardino. "Barbarism or Republican Laws?" HAHR, 75:2, (1995)

Frank Safford. "The Problem of Order in Early Republican Spanish America." Journal of Latin American Studies.

Timothy Anna. "Demystifying Early Nineteenth-Century Mexico". Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 9:1 (1993):119-137.

Select one:

De la Fuente, Ariel.  Children of Facundo : caudillo and gaucho insurgency during the Argentine state-formation process (La Rioja, 1853-1870).  Duke UP, 2000.

Mallon, Florencia. Peasant and Nation: The Making of Postcolonial Mexico and Peru. University of California Press, 1995.

Peter Guardino. Peasants, Politics, and the Formation of Mexico's National State: Guerrero, 1800-1857.

John Lynch, Caudillos in Spanish America, 1800-1850. Clarendon Press, 1992.

Jaime E. Rodriguez O. Ed. Patterns of Contention in Mexican History.

Marcello Carmagnani and Josefina Zoraida Vázquez, La Fundación del Estado Mexicano, 1821–1855.  Nueva Imagen, 1994.

John Tutino. From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico:  Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750-1940.


Williams, Derek.  “Popular Liberalism and Indian Servitude: The Making and Unmaking of Ecuador's Antilandlord State, 1845-1868.” HAHR. 83:4 2003.

Taracena Arriola, Arturo. Invención criolla, sueño Ladino, pesadilla indígena: Los Altos de Guatemala: de región a Estado, 1740–1850. Editorial Porvenir, 1997.

Ducey, Michael T. “Indian Communities and Ayuntamientos in the Mexican Huasteca: ‘Sujeto’ Revolts, ‘Pronunciamientos,’ and Caste War.” The Americas 57, no. 4 (April 2001): 525–50.

Van Young, Eric. “To See Someone Not Seeing: Historical Studies of Peasants and Politics in Mexico.” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 6:1 (Winter 1990), 133-159.


1 March                         Export Economies, “Development,” Markets and Global Networks

Nathaniel H. Leff, “Economic retardation in Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” Economic History Review 25, n. 3 (1972).

J. Coatsworth, “Economic and institutional trajectories in Nineteenth century Latin America,” in J. Coatsworth and A. Taylor eds, Latin America and the world economy since 1800.

J. Coatsworth, “Obstacles to economic growth in Nineteenth-Century Mexico,” American Historical Review 83, n. 1 (1978).

Roberto Cortes Conde. "Export-led Growth in Latin America." Journal of Latin American Studies 24 (Quincentenary Supplement): 181-197.

John Coatsworth, "Notes on the Comparative Economic History of Latin America and the United States," Walter Bernecker and Hans Werner Tobler (eds.), Development and Underdevelopment in America: Contrasts of Economic Growth in North and Latin America in Historical Perspective, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1993, pp. 10-30.

Select one:

Jeremy Adelman. Republic of capital: Buenos Aires and the legal transformation of the Atlantic world.  Stanford UP, 1999.

Haber, Stephen, ed. How Latin America Fell Behind: Essays on the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico, 1800-1914. Stanford University Press, 1997.

Steven Topik and Allen Wells (eds.). The Second Conquest of Latin America: Coffee, Henequen, and Oil during the Export Boom, 1850-1930. Univ. of Texas Press, 1998.

Carl Solberg. The Prairies and the Pampas: Agrarian Policy in Canada and Argentina, 1880-1930. Stanford Univ. Press, 1987.

Carlos Marichal. A Century of Debt Crises in Latin America: From Independence to the Great Depression, 1820-1930. Princeton Univ. Press, 1989.

Paul Gootenberg. Imagining Development:  Economic Ideas in Peru’s “Fictitious Prosperity” of Guano, 1840-1880. U. of California Press, 1993.

Paul Gootenberg, Between Silver and Guano: Commercial Policy and the State in Postindependence Peru, Princeton Univ. Press, 1989.

Richard Weiner. Race, Nation and Market: Economic Culture in Porfirian Mexico.

John H. Coatsworth, edLatin America and the World Economy Since 1800. Harvard UP. 1999.


Donald F. Stevens.  “Economic Fluctuations and Political Instability in Early Republican Mexico.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History. Vol. 16, No. 4 (Spring, 1986), pp. 645-665.

Guy Thomson. "Protectionism and Industrialization in Mexico, 1821-1854: The Case of Puebla." in Christopher Abel and Colin Lewis eds. Latin America:  Economic Imperialism and the State: The Political Economy of the External Connection from Independence to the Present. Athlone Press, 1985: 125-146.

Robert Holden, Mexico and the Survey of Public Lands: The Management of Modernization.

Robert Holden. "The Survey of Land." Latin American Reserch Review.

John Coatsworth. "Railroads and the Concentration of Landownership in the Early `Porfiriato'." Hispanic American Historical Review.

Gil Joseph. "Corporate Control of a Monocrop Economy: International Harvester and Yucatan's Henequen Industry during the Porfiriato." Latin American Research Review


8 March                         Land, Agriculture, Peasants, and the Politics of Agrarian Communities

Read five, include a couple of older items:

Deas, Malcom. et. al. Land and Labour in Latin America. Cambridge UP, 1977. Selected chaps.

McCreery, David. "State Power, Indigenous Communities, and Land in Nineteenth-Century Guatemala, 1820-1920." in Guatemalan Indians and the State. edited by C. Smith.

Eric Van Young, "Mexican Rural History Since Chevalier: The Historiography of the Colonial Hacienda," LARR, 18 (1983), pp. 5-61.

Bauer, Arnold. "Modernizing Landlords and Constructive Peasants in the Mexican Countryside," Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 14:1 (1998), pp. 191-212.

Wolfe, Justin. “Those That Live by the Work of Their Hands: Labour, Ethnicity, and Nation-State Formation in Nicaragua, 1850-1900.” Journal of Latin American Studies, 36:1 (Feb 2004), 57-83.

Purnell, Jennie. “With All Due Respect: Popular Resistance to the Privatization of Communal Lands in Nineteenth Century Michoacán,” LARR 34: 1 (1999)

Kourí, Emilio H.. Interpreting the Expropriation of Indian Pueblo Lands in Porfirian Mexico: The Unexamined Legacies of Andrés Molina Enríquez. Hispanic American Historical Review, 82:1 (Feb 2002), 69-117.

Lauria-Santiago, Aldo. “Land, Community, and Revolt in Indian Izalco, El Salvador, 1855–1905.” Hispanic American Historical Review 79, no. 3 (September 1998): 495–534.

Lauria-Santiago, Aldo. “‘That a Poor Man be Industrious:’ Coffee, Community, and Capitalism in the Transformation of El Salvador’s Ladino Peasantry, 1850–1900.” In Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State: The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean, Aldo Lauria-Santiago and Aviva Chomsky. Duke UP, 1998.

Gallardo Fernandez, Gloria L. “Communal Land Ownership: Remnant of the Past? A  Historical-Sociological Study of The Agricultural Communities of Chile’s Norte Chico. The Case of Canela  Gaja (1600–1998).” Uppsala Universitet, 1998.

McCreery, David, “Debt servitude in rural Guatemala, 1876-1936”, in American Historical Review, 63 (4), 1983.

McCreery, David. “Coffee and Class: The Structure of Development in Liberal Guatemala,” Hispanic American Historical Review 56 (1976).

Gonzáles, Michael J. “Chinese Plantation Workers and Social Conflict in Peru in the late Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 21:3 (Oct.1989): 385-424.

Knight, Alan. “Debt Bondage in Latin America.” Leonie J. Archer. In Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour, 102­17. Routledge, 1989.

Select one:

Jackson, Robert H. Liberals, the Church, and Indian Peasants: Corporate Lands and the Challenge of Reform in Nineteenth-Century Spanish America.  U. New Mexico Press, 1997.

Kourí, Emilio. A Pueblo Divided:  Business, Property, and Community in Papantla, Mexico. Stanford U. Press, 2004.

Lauria-Santiago, Aldo. An Agrarian Republic: Commercial Agriculture and the Politics of Peasant Communities in El Salvador, 1823–1914. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999.

McCreery, David. Rural Guatemala, 1760-1940. Stanford UP, 1994.

Mallon, Florencia. The Defense of Community in Peru's Central Highlands.


Ethnohistory, Vol. 50, No. 1, Beyond the Hacienda: Agrarian Relations and Socioeconomic Change in Rural Mesoamerica, Winter, 2003

Stern, Steve, ed. Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World.

Smith, Gavin. Livelihood and Resistance:  Peasants and the Politics of Land in Peru. Chaps. 1-3.

Gudmundson, Lowell. "Costa Rica Before Coffee: Occupational Distribution, Wealth, Inequality, and Elite Society in the Village Economy of the 1840s," Journal of Latin American Studies.

Marc Edelman, The Logic of the Latifundio: The Large Estates of Northwestern Costa Rica Since the Late Nineteenth Century. Stanford Univ. Press, pp. 3-30.


15 March                       [Spring Break]


22 March                       Work submitted by email--Slavery, Abolition, Blackness, Free People of Color

Aline Helg, Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912.

Robin Blackburn. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery 1776-1848. Verso, 1989.

“‘A bit of land which they call roça’: Slave provision grounds on sugar plantations and cane farms in the Bahian Recôncavo, 1780-1860.” Hispanic American Historical Review, 74:4 (1994): 649-87.

Robin Blackburn, "Racial Slavery and the Rise of the Plantation," in Robin Blackburn ed., The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. 306-368.

Rebecca Scott, “Defining the Boundaries of Freedom in the World of Cane; Cuba, Brazil & Louisiana after Emancipation,”American Historical Review 99: 1 (Feb 1994): 70-102.

Michel Rolph-Trouillot. “The inconvenience of Freedom: Free People of Color and the Political Aftermath of Slavery in Dominica and Saint-Domingue/Haiti” in The Meaning of Freedom: Economics, Politics, and Culture after Slavery. Frank McGlynn and Seymour Drescher, eds.

Andrews, George Reid. “Black and White Workers:  Sªo Paulo, Brazil, 1888–1928.” Hispanic American Historical Review 68 (August 1988): 491–524.

Brian L. Moore, The Subjugation of the Indian and the Chinese Immigrants, in Brian L. Moore, Race, Power and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana after Slavery, 1838-1891. 161-188.

Aline Helg, “Race in Argentina and Cuba, 1880-1930: Theory, Policies, and Popular Reaction,” in Richard Graham, ed., The Idea of Race in Latin America, 37-70.

Select one:

Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher. Empire and antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999.

Barickman, B.J. A Bahian Counterpoint: Sugar, Tobacco, Cassava, and Slavery in the Recôncavo, 1780-1860. Stanford UP, 1998.

Verena Martínez-Alier, Marriage, Class & Colour in Nineteenth-Century Cuba.

Patrick J. Carroll.  Blacks in Colonial Veracruz: Race, Ethnicity, and Regional Development.

George Reid Andrews. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1800-1900. U. of Wisconsin Press.

Nancy Priscilla Naro, ed. Blacks, Coloureds and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America.  ILAS.

Mieko Nishida, Slavery and Identity: Ethnicity, Gender, and Race in Salvador, Brazil, 1808-1888.

Sandra Lauderdale Graham . House and Street: The Domestic World of Servants and Masters in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro. University of Texas Press. 1992.

Stuart Schwartz, Slaves. Peasants, and Rebels: Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery. U. of Illinois P.

Katia M. De Queiros Mattoso. To Be a Slave in Brazil: 1550-1888.

Nancy Priscilla Naro edBlacks, coloureds and national identity in Nineteenth-Century Latin America. Institute of Latin American Studies, 2003.

Mary C. Karasch. Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1850. Princeton UP.

Walter Rodney. A History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881-1905.  The Johns Hopkins. 1981.

Butler, K. Freedoms given, freedoms won: Afro-Brazilians in post-abolition Sao Paulo and Salvador.

Scott, Rebecca J. Degrees of Freedom: Louisiana and Cuba after slavery. Harvard UP, 2005.

Scott, Rebecca J. Slave emancipation in Cuba: the transition to free labor, 1860-1899. Princeton UP, 1985.

Ada Ferrer. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution 1868-1898. Univ of North Carolina Pr.

Franklin Knight. Slave Society in Cuba during the Nineteenth Century. Wisconsin UP.


29 March                       Regional Studies of the Entire Century

Van Young, Eric.  “Doing Regional History: A Theoretical Discussion and some Mexican Cases.” CLAG Yearbook, 20 (1994), 21-34.

Read one, skim a second:

Langer, Erick D. Economic Change and Rural Resistance in Southern Bolivia, 1880–1930. Stanford UP, 1989.

Chambers, Sarah C. From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780-1854. Pennsylvania State UP, 1999.

Cynthia Radding. Landscapes of Power and Identity: Comparative Histories in the Sonoran Desert and the Forests of Amazonia from Colony to Republic.

Stanley J. Stein.  Vassouras: A Brazilian Coffee County, 1850-1900.  Princeton UP. 1986.

Jacobsen, Nils. Mirages of Transition: The Peruvian Altiplano, 1780-1930. California UP. 1993.

Larson, Brooke.  Cochabamba, 1550-1900: Colonialism and Agrarian Transformation In Bolivia. Duke UP, 1998.

Sanders, James E. Contentious Republicans: Popular Politics, Race, and Class in nineteenth-century Colombia. Duke UP, 2004.

Thomson, Guy P. C, and David G LaFrance. Patriotism, Politics, and Popular Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Mexico: Juan Francisco Lucas and the Puebla Sierra. SR Press, 1998.

Nancy Appelbaum, Muddied Waters: Race, Region, and Local History in Colombia, 1846-1948.  Duke UP.

Nugent, David.  Modernity At the Edge of Empire: State, Individual, and Nation in The Northern Peruvian Andes, 1885-1935. Stanford UP, 1997.

Brooke Larson, Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race, and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810-1910.

Robert H. Jackson.  Regional Markets and Agrarian Transformation in Bolivia: Cochabamba, 1539-1960.

Eduardo Posada-CarboThe Colombian Caribbean: A Regional History, 1870-1950. Clarendon Press.

Adelman, Jeremy.  Frontier Development: Land, Labour, and Capital on the Wheatlands of Argentina and Canada, 1890-1914.  Oxford UP, 1994.

John Tutino. From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico:  Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750-1940. Princeton UP, 1986.

Chassen de López, Francie R. From Liberal to Revolutionary Oaxaca the View from the South, Mexico 1867–1911. Pennsylvania State UP, 2004.

Thomas Benjamin and William McNellie, eds. Other Mexicos:  Essays on Regional Mexican History, 1876-1911. University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

Thomas Holloway. Immigrants on the Land: Coffee and Society in São Paulo, 1886-1934. University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Cynthia RaddingLandscapes of Power and Identity: Comparative Histories in the Sonoran Desert and the Forests of Amazonia from Colony to Republic.


5 April                         Elites and State Formation

Rebecca Earle, ed. Rumours of Wars: Civil Conflict in nineteenth-century Latin America. University of London, Institute of Latin American Studies, 2000.

Eduardo Posada-Carbo. In Search of a New Order: Essays on the Politics and Society of Nineteenth Century Latin America. ILAS.

Mücke, Ulrich. Partido Civil in Peru 1871-1879. Political culture in nineteenth-century Peru : the rise of the Partido Civil. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004.

Knight, Alan S.”El liberalismo mexicano desde la reforma hasta la revolución: una interpretación.” Historia Mexicana, 35:1 (July-Sept 1985), 59-91.

Hilda Sábato, "Citizenship, Political Participation and the Formation of the Public Sphere in Buenos Aires," Past and Present, 136 (1992), pp. 139-63.

Brian Hamnet. "Benito Juarez, Early Liberalism, and the Regional Politics of Oaxaca, 1828-1853." Bulletin of Latin American Studies 10:1

Paul Gootenberg. "Beleaguered Liberals:  The Failed First Generation of Free Traders in Peru."

Select one:

Fernando Lopez-Alvez. State Formation and Democracy in Latin America. Duke UP, 2000.

Richard Sinkin, The Mexican Reform, 1855-1876: A Study in Liberal Nation Building, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1979.

Vicent C. Peloso and Barbara Tenenbaum, eds., Liberals, Politics and Power: State Formation in Nineteenth-Century Latin America. University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Joseph Love and Nils Jacobsen, eds, Guiding the Invisible Hand: Economic Liberalism and the State in Latin America.

Emilia Viotti da Costa, The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories.

Mark Wasserman. Capitalists, Caciques, and Revolution: the Native Elite and Foreign Enterprise in Chihuahua, Mexico, 1854-1911. University of North Carolina Press. 1984.

Maurice Zeitlin. The Civil Wars in Chile.  Princeton. 1984.

Centeno, Miguel Angel, Blood and debt: war and the nation state in Latin America.

Peter M. Beattie. The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race and Nation in Brazil, 1864-1945.

Schoultz, Lars.  Beneath the United States: a history of U.S. policy toward Latin America. Harvard UP, 1998.

Raymond B. Craib. Cartographic Mexico: A History of State Fixations and Fugitive Landscapes. Duke 2004.

Robert H. Holden.  Armies without Nations: Public Violence and State Formation in Central America, 1821-1960. 


12 April                         From Caste to Citizens? Indians and the State

Jeffrey L. Gould. To Die in This Way: Nicaraguan Indians and the Myth of the Mestizaje 1880-1965. Chaps. 1-3.

Charles Hale. Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894-1987. Stanford UP.  Chaps 1-2.

Ferrer Muñoz, Manuel, and María Bono López. Pueblos Indígenas y Estado Nacional en México en el Siglo XIX. Serie C--Estudios Históricos Núm. 79. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1998.

Florencia Mallon. "Indian Communities, Political Cultures, and the State in Latin America, 1780-1990" Journal of Latin American Studies. Journal of Latin American Studies 24.Quincentenary Supplement (1992): 35-53.

Kicza, ed. The Indian in Latin American History. Chaps. 7 & 8.

Select one:

Richard Graham, ed., The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870-1940. University of Texas Press, 1990.

Mark Thurner. From Two Republics to One Divided. Contradictions of Postcolonial Nationmaking in Andean Peru.

Greg Grandin.  The Blood of Guatemala. A History of Race and Nation. Duke.

Charles Walker. Smoldering Ashes. Duke. Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840. Duke, 1992.


19 April                        Agrarian Revolt and Resistance, 1880s-1910

Friederich Katz. Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution. Selected chaps.

Knight, Alan S.. Frank Tannenbaum y la revolución mexicana (Translated by María Vinós). Estudios de Historia Moderna y Contemporánea de México, 19 (1999), 33-52.

Steve Stern, ed. Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Past.Selected chaps.

Gilbert Joseph. "On the Trail of Latin American Bandits." in Rodriguez, ed. Patterns of Contention in Mexican History.

Friederich Katz. "Labor Conditions on Haciendas in Porfirian Mexico: Some Trends and Tendencies." Hispanic American Historical Review (1974)

Friedrich Katz, The Life and Times of Pancho Villa. Stanford Univ. Press, 1998.  Chaps.

Alan Knight, "The United States and the Mexican Peasantry, circa 1880-1940," Daniel Nugent (ed.), Rural Revolt in Mexico: U.S. Intervention and the Domain of Subaltern Politics. Duke Univ. Press, 1998.

Select one:

Levine, Robert M. Vale of Tears: Revisiting the Canudos Massacre in Northeastern Brazil, 1893-1897. 1992.

Catherine Legrand. Frontier Expansion and Peasant Protest in Colombia, 1850-1936.  U. New Mexico Press. 1986.

Louis A. Perez.  Lords of the Mountain: Social Banditry and Peasant Protest in Cuba, 1878-1918. U. Pittsburgh P. 1989

David Nugent. Spent Cartridges of Revolution.

Gilbert Joseph and Allen Wells, Summer of Discontent, Seasons of Upheaval: Elite Politics and Rural Insurgency in Yucatán, 1876-1915. Stanford Univ. Press, 1996.

John Womack, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution, New York: Knopf, 1968.

Alan Knight. The Mexican Revolution, Volume 1, Porfirians, Liberals, and Peasants.  U. Nebraska Press. 1986.

John Mason Heart. Revolutionary Mexico: The coming and Process of the Mexican Revolution.  U. California P. 1987.


26 April                         Gender and Nation

Sueann Caulfied, “The History of Gender in the Historiography of Latin America,” HAHR 81: 3-4 (2001).

Donna J. Guy. "Women, Peonage, and Industrialization:  Argentina, 1810-1914." Latin American Research Review XVI, no. 3 (1981): 65-89.

Tutino, John M. "Power, Class, and Family: Men and Women in the Mexican Elite, 1750-1810." Americas 39 (January 1983): 359-81.

Elizabeth Dore, “One Step Forward and Two Steps Back. Gender and the State in the Long Nineteenth Century,” in Elizabeth Dore and Maxine Molyneux, eds., Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America. Duke UP, 2000, 3-32.

William French. "Prostitutes and Angels:  Women, Work, and Family in Porfirian Mexico." Hispanic American Historical Review 72:4 (November 1992): 529-553.

Donna J. Guy. "Prostitution and Female Criminality in Buenos Aires, 1875-1937." in The Problem of Order in Changing Societies:  Essays on Crime and Policing in Argentina and Uruguay, 1750-1940, edited by Lyman L. Johnson, 89-116. University of New Mexico Press, 1990.

Dore, Elizabeth. “Property, Households, and Public Regulation of Domestic Life: Diriomo, Nicaragua 1840–1900.” Journal of Latin American Studies 29 (1997): 591–611.

Ramon Guitierrez. When Jesus Came the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846. Chap. 10.

Select one:

Elizabeth Dore. Myths of Modernity: Peonage and Patriarchy in Nicaragua. Duke. 2006.

Hünefeldt, Christine.  Liberalism in the Bedroom: Quarreling Spouses in Nineteenth-century Lima. Pennsylvania State UP, 2000.

Eileen J. Suá Findlay. Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920. UNC Press.

June E. HahnerEmancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women's Rights in Brazil, 1850-1940.

Felix V. Matos Rodríguez. Women and Urban Change in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1820-1868.  U. Florida Press. 1999.

Donna Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires:  Prostitution, Family, and Nation in Argentina (U. of Nebraska Press, 1990).

Susie S. Porter. Working Women in Mexico City: Public Discourses and Material Conditions, 1879-1931. University of Arizona Press, 2003


Florencia Mallon. "Gender and Class in the Transition to Capitalism: Household and Mode of Production in Central Peru." Latin American Perspectives 13:1 (Winter 1986): 147-174.

Campbell, Leon G. "Women and the Great Rebellion in Peru, 1780-1783." Americas 42 (October 1985): 163-96.

June E. Hahner, ed., Women through Women's Eyes: Latin American Women in Nineteenth Century Travel Accounts.

Silvia M. Arrom. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford UP, 1985.